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z . ,2 


to the 

Workers of America 

Price 5/ 

Pufetisfat&d by 

1922 t 

f Foreword 

In the following pages, we reprint the Labor Day Mani- 
festo of the Communist Party of America. 

Always assailed as Utopian and visionary, in this document 
the Communists reveal themselves as thoroughly realistic and 
as voicing the demands of all progressive workers,'' namely, for 
amalgamation of craft unions into industrial unions, for solid- 
arity of the working class and for militant action in defense * 
of working-class interests. 

During the present labor struggles, the many accidents that 
occurred were fraudulently ascribed to acts of violence on the 
part of radical workers, and especially of Communists. The 
capitalists and the authorities carefully concealed many glaring 
facts, such as, that, as a result of the RaMroad Strike, 60% of 
the locomotives, according to statistics, were out of repair. The 
consequence was many serious wrecks like the one at Gary, Ind. 

In 1919, during the Washington inquiry into the Steel 
Strike, Judge Gary declared that he conducted his business as 
HE saw fit, and employed a system of spies throughout his or- 
ganizatkm as the proper method of checking up on his workers. 
This, he stated, was his perfect right. Again, the Inter-Church 
Inquiry into the Steel Strike and the investigation of the West 
Virginia coal mining industry definitely exposed and demon- 
strated what spokesmen of the working class had long asserted; 
©tz., that, by means of "rats", stool-pigeons and provocateurs, 
the employers commit acts of vandalism and violence on their 
own property and against their own workers, laying the respon- 
sibility for such acts at the door of strikers and rebellion* 

workers. This they do in order to discredit the workers and 
give excuse for the use of force against them. 

hi the recent coal and railroad strikes, with the aid of 
hirelings, the capitalists used the same violence against the 
workers with the idea of disrupting their organizations. 

This Labor Day Manifesto clearly reveals the part that 
force plays in the struggle of the capitalists against the work- 
ers — a part that daily is becoming more apparent and more 
extensive, especially in America. The workers must under- 
stand this, and buiM up their organisations accordingly. 



of the 

Communist Party of America 

To the Workers of the United States- 

rnun^ZlZZ^Z^l ^ diFeCted *°™>* Go- 
to can Co m t:Lu 7n?he el^ h the A ° eP<lrtln€nt ° f J »«<* 
one who is "red", ev ^oL w o s t-w'T Gener "' T 

»entlr/^r h ^ that « * «» Depart- 

alleged "secTPt » , arged With having attended an 

ators!" The Gompers clique rushes to the rescue of this unholy 
Trinity. And even the Socialist New York Call and the Forward 
print documents and evidence to prove that the Communists are 
an underground party with secret objects and mysterious meth- 


Workers of America! We want to make it clear to you why 
all the Powers that be of American capitalism have solidly lined 
up against us. 

They are persecuting us, not because we are a secret band 
of conspirators. 

The Communist Party of America is not a secret band of 
plotters. We do not desire to conceal a single one of our objects 
from the great working class of America. It is an infamous 
lie that we Communists organize campaigns of bomb throwing, 
dynanutmg and sabotage. On the contrary, we Communists, 
as all of our manifestoes, books and press show, are in principle 
opposed to all such individual actions— instead of action of the 
masses— not because we want to save the capitalists, but because 
we know that all such terroristic acts are ineffective and would 
serve to confuse the working masses and poison public opinion 
against the workers' cause, and would afford the capitalist 
government an excuse to proceed against the workers 

We can perfectly well understand how honest, striking 
workers, embittered by the brutal oppression suffered bv them 
under capUahsm, resort to acts of sabotage, and we look upon 
the persecute of such workers with utmost disdain. Rut we 
do not look upon such methods as methods of the Revolution. 


JesW tt? TT'^TJ-^ " 0t b ° mb thKwers - We ™nt to 
destroy the whole building of capitalist society and not the build- 
ing of some railway station. 

We are after the life of the political and economic rule of 
the bourgeo.sie and not after the life of this banker or that 
governmental official. 

The road to the Workers' Revolution does not lie in train 


wrecks and petty dynamiting feats, but in broad, huge m... 
£S tlT™ ^ ° rganiZed ™ ^»™* *< the or* 

It is base and senseless slander to brand the Communists 
woX * Tf " ambU8h - Face to f8ce ^th all the 

Irms „or „ ° Pen ' y dedare 'hat we have neither 

arms nor an armed organization. We know very well how- 
ever, that capitalism cannot be abolished without the use of force. 
The capitalist magnates will hand over power to the work- 
Wim r gl> ' and 38 peacefu "v *s the British Crown and 
1776 I/'" 8 * ° Ver t0 the A ™" bourgeoisie in 

owners freed their Negro slaves in the Civil War. 

Indeed, we openly proclaim that the industrial and agricul- 
tural workers, who, being the vast majority of the pop^ot 
"•r?J h3Ve . a "> ht t» establish their own rule, w ™ 
force ,f need be, against the rule of the small group c f t™* 
magnates and capitalists generally. 

We are for the rule of the workers; we are for huge mass 
aeons; we are for participation of tens of millions of worked 
th 1S struggie. Is it not then plain and self-evident ZZ t ZZ 
be ridiculous and stupid for us even to attempt to achieve all 

A tT- !f t BeCTet ' C ° nCealed ma ™« without the knowlLS 
and behind the backs of the millions of workers' 

party?" Bnoimw i'arty of America an underground 

We want to answer this quwtion also. It fa true that th« 
Communist Partv of A mo w M ,-„ , e tnat the 

whv , , Z America, is an underground party. Bat 

Z> L P ] J bWaQ9e the ea P^l«t State Powers comnel u! 

to be- an underground nm+u t„ . ™ *-«<npe! os 

"antt ^-n,rj J,1 P y ' In mar »y rf °w states there are 
antisyndicalist" laws, the object of which is thru «Z! 


Powers, thru their own laws, make it impossible for us to exist 
$ openly, and then on the other hand, these same capitalist State 
Powers turn round and blame us for being underground party. 


It is not an inherent feature of a Communist party to be 
underground. In France, in Germany, in Italy, in England, in 
Czecho-Slovakia, we have Communist Parties with hundreds of 
thousands of workers in their ranks, whose program is the same 
as ours, that is, the establishment of working class rule, the 
abolition of capitalism. 

And yet, these parties are not underground; on the contrary, 
they are able to organize openly, to carry on the most open 
Communist propaganda in their press, assembly and the legis- 
lative bodies. 

It is only in the most backward countries, as in Rumania, 
Jugo-Slavia. Poland, Hungary and Finland, in the countries 
most apart from the center of the modern world, that the brutal- 
ity of the State Powers has condemned the Communist parties 
to an underground existence. 

The Communist Party of America has done everything in 
its power to organize as an open political party. In 1919 the 
Communist Party of America was organized as an open party. 
It is only the brutal persecution that has driven us underground. 
And today also, we want to do everything in our power that will 
enable us to participate openly in political life. 

Our great aim, revolutionizing the broad masses, the devel- 
opment of huge political mass actions, the enhancement of prole- 
tarian class-consciousness, the raising of the working class to be 
the class, all of these especially, we can only achieve in 
the great open field. We openly declare and we can convince 
every s.ncere worker that the Communist Party of America, 
despite the fact that it is today an underground party, has not 
carried out a s.ngle plan in secret, and is carrying on all of its 
work, all of its activity in the open. 

We are, then, not persecuted because we are a band of 
consp.rators, and not because we are building an underground 
party. This u all false The real reasons for this persecution 
are positively to be found elsewhere. 



The real reasons are the following: As a result of the War 
and the economic crisis, the class struggle of the American 
workers against the capitalists is developing on an ever larger 
scale and assuming an ever sharper turn, The offensive of the 
capitalists seeks, with the aid of their State Powers, to destroy 
the whole organized labor movement and the brutal attempts 
of the Government to destroy the Coal Miners* Union thru the 
Coronado decision, indicates the real plans of the capitalists. 

The workers must defend themselves unless they wish to 
go down to utter defeat. The big battles of this campaign of 
self-defense are the miners' and the railroad workers' strikes. 
Neither America nor the rest of the capitalist world has seen 
such gigantic strikes, of such long duration, imbued with so 
courageous a spirit, and involving such huge masses as we now 
have in the miners', railroad workers' and other strikes. 

The results of these strikes are already momentous. The 
production of coal has been brought to a standstill. The whole 
capitalist press, after treating the strike arrogantly for months, 
has now for the past few weeks been lamenting the fact that 
the flames of American capitalist economic life are smothered. 
As a consequence of the coal strike, Ford must close his gigantic 
automobile works and other capitalists must follow suit, 

The railway strike is. becoming more and more general. 
Even the strike of the shopmen alone obstructed traffic. The 
Interstate Commerce- Commission was obliged to notify the 
Senate that no less than 60 per cent of the 79,000 locomotives 
in. use in the United States were rendered useless for service. 

The organized workers of the Big Four are out on strike 
by the tens of thousands— against the will of the yellow trade 
onion bureaucracy. The Steel Trust,, terrified, lest: the steel 
workers be drawn into this strike movement,, was forced, "volun- 
tarily" to raise the wages 20 per cent. 

^ The amalgamation of the craft unions into industrial unions 
« becoming an ever larger factor in the minds of the workers. 
What had never manifested itself in the history of the American 



labor movement has already appeared: the idea and the possi- 
States C ° UCUn * 8 General Strike thruout th « entire United 
Coal and railroads, fuel and traffic are in danger-the 

" STSES striLT ft unions int0 industriaI unions - the «- <« 


The capitalists of this country cannot crush the millions of 

Pov'theT T mifl " ly: heMe the ^ eon,p e „ed to em 
iLi G ° Vernment P ° Wer * th6y Me open, naked 

The American courts have issued a whole series of miW 
t^a^ainst the strikers for the protection of ^pitX 

The aim of the Coronado decision is to strike to the heart 
of orgamzed labor. The police dogs of the Department It JustW 

Herrin is only a battle in th « ar ^|, 

and the working class of America. the ca P !talist 

The siege of Joliet is another battle in this hi* war a 
extensive, well-planned campaign of thl / ,. g War ' An 

SEE*- s -2 

But the capitalist's are not satisfied with th;= wt . t 
already happened in fifteen State, 7h„ f . What has 
48 States of the Union K-Xh a 10 enact all, 

he asks for a lalwh° h otTtt P °^ 

- completely to th 7t:Z 

brutality: "If the strike is not ^ IttMn ^ ?* ™ *" 
>- wmply raise the flag and appoint rJ ^ o wiU 
charge of matters." PP General Pushing to take 

The dictatorship of the American capitalists has been 

changed into an open military dictatorship, owing to the in- 
creasing sharpness of the class struggle. 


The mighty executive of the capitalist class — the Govern- 
ment — immediately grasped what the working class has not yet 
grasped, namely, that every large economic struggle between 
capital and labor becomes a political struggle — that is, a strag- 
gle for political power. 

The extensive strike movement of the workers, which up to 
the present has been on the defensive, has reached the point at 
which it now faces the whole capitalist State Power. It is 
quite evident that Harding and his accomplices have determined 
to destroy the entire strike movement and, if necessary, to 
accomplish it by drowning the workers in their own blood. 
Attorney General Datigherty has said quite openly that if the 
workers do not surrender to the bosses, "the Government will 
destroy the unions." 

Workers of America! This is the heart of the problem. 
You must understand that the persecutions to which the Com- 
munists have been subjected are nothing but. the beginning and 
part and parcel of the persecutions which the whole working 
class of this country will suffer. 

Yon must understand that the same courts that condemn 
Communists to prison also issue injunctions against the workers. 
The same courts that outlawed the Communist party also 
declared the Child Labor Law unconstitutional. The same De-f 
partment of Justice that carries on raids against the Comnran- 
ists also sends its spies and rats into the unions, and by means 
of provocateurs, carries out bomb attacks and acts of sabotage, 
and then proclaims them, as acts of the working class. 

The same armed forces that came out of their hiding place 
in Michigan and attacked the Communists also besieged Joliet 
and marched oat to pot down striking workers in fifteen states. 

You must understand that the attack on the Communists 
at Bridgeman. Mich., and the raid on the Trade Union Educa- 


in a IS V / T thing3 th8t happen on, y °™ 

In a while. You must understand that Patrick Hamrock who 

drove Foster out of Colorado i s the same man who shot downlhe 
w.ves and children of the miners at Ludlow, Colo. 

It is clearly no accident that Attorney General Daugherty 
one week ordered raids on the Communists, and the next week 

everTTdl J™* fa ™ chin S. Mastic injunction 

RaO™1 I , federal court in any lab or dispute, restated the 
Railroad Employees' Department of the American Federation 
ol Labor from ever "issuing any instructions, public statements 

strike. The funds of the strike are thus tied up, no money can 

strikers and 811 picketi - and - 

The same capitalists who drove us underground are now try- 
ing to drive the trade unionists underground. The same PowJL 
o State that have declared us illegf, and have gotten a l 
about democracy, so far as we are concerned, and have denied 
us the freedom of the press, assemblage and speech, the saml 
powers of state which have ruthlessly exercised a d fcUtorehto 
over us for many years, these same powers are now Sit ' 


This, and this only, is the meanino- nf »k. i 
the mines and the railed" to m s "Z 

the meaning of the raising of the ^^^^J?*' £ 
ways at this time; and this, and this oniv i s Z 
Pershing's entry as a force into the stnke tena. ™ g ° f 
The workers of America must understand that the f»* * 
the workmg class and the fate of the Communist! ° f 
able. This is self-evident. The Ccn^sT^ no ? 
soparate and distinct from the working cYat The Co * ^ 
are those workers who are conscious of the feet tZT^T 
struggle against the capitalist* th* 1 V that m the 

class. capitalists the workers must fight as a 

The Communists are among the first to recognize that the 

workers cannot fight well when they are divided into nearly 160 
separate and distinct unions. 

The Communists are among 1 the first to protest against the 
reduction of wages and the first to agitate against the pauper- 
ization of the masses. 


The Communists are those who maintain that it is insuffi- 
cient to struggle merely against the individual capitalists or 
trusts, because the organ of the organized capitalists-— the Gov- 
ernment—immediately rushes to the aid of the exploiters when- 
ever they are attacked. 

It is therefore necessary to wage a political straggle against 
the whole system of capitalist state power. 

The Communists are those who demand that the workers 
shomld declare themselves independent of the capitalist political 
parties. The workers must have their own class party repre- 
senting the interests of the whole working class. The Commun- 
ists are those who wish to substitute for the dictatorship of the 
trusts the rule of the workers in the interests of all. 

And neither does the Communist International, the great 
association of all Communist parties, have any secret, mysteri- 
ous, "Russian" aims. 

At this moment, in the prevailing situation in America., the 
Communist International (the real International and not the 
sham International portrayed to you by your enemies) asks that 
the railroad workers, the miners, and the seamen, of England and 
France do not permit the transportation of scab coal to America. 

The Communists are not a sinister, secret band of con- 
spirators. Oar aim, the liberation of the workers, the abolition." 
of wage slavery and winning working-class, control of industry 
and State Power, can only be achieved if the great masses of the 
workers stand with as. 

Workers' rule is only possible when, the millions of workers 
support the Communist program. The essential feature of the 


Communist Program is to convince the majority of the worker, 
of the truth of the ideas of Commumsm 

We do not have a single point in our whole Pȣ ar " 

we wish to concea, from ^1^*^^ 
Communist program ever issued, the found* « CQm _ 
munlsm, Marx and Engels, long ago declared, 
munists disdain to conceal their . aims Wg once 

more appeal to the -worn „ workers as well. 

Communists as a matter ^"^f,^ because the capitalists 
, Th e Communists are today out '* class , when William 

are planning to outlaw the f f;^ «d 0 Adjutant General 
Z. Foster was forcibly run out of Colo ^ ^ rf the 

Hamrock declared that hedid ^ f^ lted/> 
State." And he added. No law 


k »k their own laws whenever their mter- 
The capitalists brea k t h r °, dcfeml their advance 

ests demand it. I th ' *^ thcn the workers will have 
guard, the persecuted Co-mum ^ dass face the same 

to get ready to have * H ardings, Daughertys, and 
declaration from the " a «™ ' must be crushed "for the 
Pershings that ^^^^d in this instance also "no law 
best interests of the i>uxe 

Tn rint-t'L of the whole working class, we call upon the 

AB> t ea ToTu! t W through^ the country a United Front against 

a " T ^derestricted right to organize, strike, and 

Pickt ; t - Democracy in fact for all the workers as it is now given 
to the capitalist—the unrestricted right to freedom of press, 
assembly and speech. 

4 Van must wage your struggles more effectively, De- 
mand'the amalgamation of your craft unions. 

5 You must have a political party of the workers entirely .'■ 
independent of the capitalist parties, 




6. Organize a country-wide protest against the slanderous 
capitalist campaign against your foreign-bom brother workers. 

7. For the realization of these demands, organize every- 
where open protest meetings and demonstrations. Pass resolu- 
tions on a national scale. Every union, every labor organization 
should pass such resolutions of protest. 

8. Raise money everywhere to aid the victims of capitalist 

For the united struggle against our common enemy, we are, 

Fraternally yours, 

The Communist Party of America. 
Section of the Communist International, 

.Labor Day, 1922.